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Queen Elizabeth I: A Life From Beginning to End

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Queen Elizabeth I There are many versions of Queen Elizabeth I of England; the beautiful young Tudor Queen courted by all the princes of Europe; a fearless virgin warrior in white velvet, rousing her troops on the battlefield; an irascible old woman in a powdered wig, surrounded by fawning young men. A formidable woman, Elizabeth I ruled alone at a time when Europe was a h Queen Elizabeth I There are many versions of Queen Elizabeth I of England; the beautiful young Tudor Queen courted by all the princes of Europe; a fearless virgin warrior in white velvet, rousing her troops on the battlefield; an irascible old woman in a powdered wig, surrounded by fawning young men. A formidable woman, Elizabeth I ruled alone at a time when Europe was a hotbed of conflict, dominated by empire-seeking Kings with opposing religious beliefs. Inside you will read about... ✓ Early Years ✓ Becoming Queen of England ✓ The Matter of Succession ✓ Mary Queen of Scots ✓ The Last Suitor ✓ Trouble in England ✓ Mary's Execution ✓ The Essex Affair And much more! A shrewd politician, Elizabeth manipulated these Kings using any means necessary, including her own hand in marriage, to transform what had been a small, relatively impoverished half- island nation into one of the greatest powers in the world.


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Queen Elizabeth I There are many versions of Queen Elizabeth I of England; the beautiful young Tudor Queen courted by all the princes of Europe; a fearless virgin warrior in white velvet, rousing her troops on the battlefield; an irascible old woman in a powdered wig, surrounded by fawning young men. A formidable woman, Elizabeth I ruled alone at a time when Europe was a h Queen Elizabeth I There are many versions of Queen Elizabeth I of England; the beautiful young Tudor Queen courted by all the princes of Europe; a fearless virgin warrior in white velvet, rousing her troops on the battlefield; an irascible old woman in a powdered wig, surrounded by fawning young men. A formidable woman, Elizabeth I ruled alone at a time when Europe was a hotbed of conflict, dominated by empire-seeking Kings with opposing religious beliefs. Inside you will read about... ✓ Early Years ✓ Becoming Queen of England ✓ The Matter of Succession ✓ Mary Queen of Scots ✓ The Last Suitor ✓ Trouble in England ✓ Mary's Execution ✓ The Essex Affair And much more! A shrewd politician, Elizabeth manipulated these Kings using any means necessary, including her own hand in marriage, to transform what had been a small, relatively impoverished half- island nation into one of the greatest powers in the world.

30 review for Queen Elizabeth I: A Life From Beginning to End

  1. 5 out of 5

    Labijose

    Another brief but fulfilling biography. This time about one of England’s most famous rulers. A short description of her tumultuous life, from her early years to her passing away. A must read for those who want a short version of such an important historical figure. If you’re looking for a thorough biography, look elsewhere. If you just want a quick reminder of what you should have been taught at school, this the perfect book. It leaves out important stuff, but at least your interest in Elizabeth Another brief but fulfilling biography. This time about one of England’s most famous rulers. A short description of her tumultuous life, from her early years to her passing away. A must read for those who want a short version of such an important historical figure. If you’re looking for a thorough biography, look elsewhere. If you just want a quick reminder of what you should have been taught at school, this the perfect book. It leaves out important stuff, but at least your interest in Elizabeth I will be satisfied with the most important facts.

  2. 4 out of 5

    Susan

    Refreshing some history... good one!

  3. 4 out of 5

    Thom Swennes

    It can’t be denied that Elizabeth Tudor led a tumultuous life in turbulent times. Born on September 7, 1533, at the Palace of Placentia to King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, she was a disappointment to both of her parents but nevertheless was afforded all material comforts, at Greenwich Palace with 250 servants. Just two and a half years after her birth, Anne Boleyn is beheaded and Elizabeth is stripped of her place in the line of succession. She moved to Hatfield House with her o It can’t be denied that Elizabeth Tudor led a tumultuous life in turbulent times. Born on September 7, 1533, at the Palace of Placentia to King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, she was a disappointment to both of her parents but nevertheless was afforded all material comforts, at Greenwich Palace with 250 servants. Just two and a half years after her birth, Anne Boleyn is beheaded and Elizabeth is stripped of her place in the line of succession. She moved to Hatfield House with her older sister, Mary. Her father, Henry, was married six times and left three heirs upon his death in 1547. Edward, Henry’s youngest child, ascended the throne in the same year, becoming King Edward VI at just nine years of age. Edward wasn’t to be the English monarch for long as he dies of tuberculosis at age fifteen in 1553. Mary succeeds her youngest sibling, becoming the first female monarch of England. As the daughter of Henry’s first wife, Katharine of Aragon was raised by her mother as a Catholic. She acquired the infamous name of Bloody Mary for introducing heresy laws that cost the lives of over three hundred English Protestants that were burned at the stake. When Queen Mary dies in 1558, presumably of ovarian or stomach cancer, thus leaving the throne of England to Henry’s last offspring, Elizabeth Tudor, the story of the Virgin Queen begins. This short history of a strong, shrewd, and intelligent monarch, who put her mark on world history and launched England into a seaward course to eventual world domination. Elizabeth is a colorful character surrounded by deceit, danger, and intrigue throughout the forty-four years of her reign. The book centers more on life directly surrounding Elizabeth, rather than the national and international turbulence that ran ramped throughout Europe and the South American possessions of Spain. Although there is a lot of information packed into a relative few pages, it is enough to form an outline and serve as an inspiration to fill in the blanks.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Young Kim

    With its brief, yet clear introduction, the book is best if read after the same publisher's Wars of the Roses and Henry VIII as a series. This book tells the truth of the gap between the power of Spain and England in the late-16th century despite the English-Dutch victory over Spanish Armada in 1588. It is like the Communist Chinese forces annihilated the elite 1st U.S. Marines in Chosin Reservoir inflicting a humiliating retreat on the entire UN side, but it didn’t mean the power of People’s Rep With its brief, yet clear introduction, the book is best if read after the same publisher's Wars of the Roses and Henry VIII as a series. This book tells the truth of the gap between the power of Spain and England in the late-16th century despite the English-Dutch victory over Spanish Armada in 1588. It is like the Communist Chinese forces annihilated the elite 1st U.S. Marines in Chosin Reservoir inflicting a humiliating retreat on the entire UN side, but it didn’t mean the power of People’s Republic of China surpassed that of the United States of America back in the mid-20th century. We’ve been taught at school that the English victory of 1588 was the turning point between Spain and England, but England still had long way to sail to grasp the global hegemony in the early-19th century with Bourbon-France the Champion of Europe in-between Habsburg-Spain and Parliamentary-Great Britain. (Kindle Location 419) The defeat of the Spanish Armada was an important victory for England, but it did not bring an end to the war with Spain. The Spanish retained control of the southern part of the Netherlands, and the threat of invasion would hang over England for the rest of Elizabeth's reign... (Kindle Location 470) In the final years of her reign, Elizabeth presided over a neglected and fatigued court and a famine-stricken England. Struggling to restock her treasury after costly campaigns in Netherland and Ireland, not to mention the cost of keeping a Navy ready to defend against the threat of yet another Spanish Armada, Elizabeth had effectively bankrupted England... (Kindle Locations 434-443) ...Henry IV had inherited the French throne in 1589, he had been begging for military support from the English. Spanish forces were still active in France and helping the French Catholic forces to occupy parts of Brittany and Normandy. The first two English campaigns in France were costly disasters that were completely ineffective in pushing back Spanish troops. In 1591, Elizabeth allowed Essex to head an army with the mission of supporting Henry IV to defeat the Spanish at the besieged city of Rouen. Again the venture was a disaster, and Essex was called back to England... Feel the power of Spain? When Elizabeth was the Queen of England, Habsburg-Spain was the champion of Europe under Catholic doctrines and laws that plainly and clearly defined the ranks of the Human world, by Human world I mean European Christendom at the time. The King of Spain was above the Pope in real, and he just used the Roman Pontiff for the legitimacy of his decisions. (Kindle Location 63) ...keen to forge an alliance with other Catholic powers in Europe, Mary agreed to marry the premier Catholic leader in Europe, Philip of Spain. This marriage was ill-judged, and Mary instantly lost the support of the English people, who saw Mary and Philip's joint rule as England's submission to the Kingdom of Spain...During her short reign, Mary had introduced laws of heresy that sanctioned the burning of over 300 Protestants at the stake, which earned her the sobriquet “Bloody Mary,” but she had failed to properly re-establish the Holy Roman Empire's dominance in England…being the widow of her half-sister, but Philip's position as premier leader of the Catholic Church was completely at odds with Parliament's hopes of re-establishing Protestantism in England. Elizabeth waited until a religious settlement and peace treaty with France was all but finalized before formally rejecting Philip's proposal and at the same time asserted her religious stance, stating that “she could not marry your Majesty because she is a heretic.” (Kindle Locations 283-292) In 1574, militant Catholic priests from continental seminaries began to arrive in England with the task of restoring the old faith on English soil. Many of these priests were educated under the patronage of King Philip or the Pope and were rigorously trained for this special undercover mission. Over the next few years, the number of “seminaries” in England rose to over one hundred. Their presence rejuvenated the Catholic faith so much so that the government was forced to act. Thanks to Cecil, now Lord Burghley’s, huge network of spies led by Elizabeth’s spymaster, Sir Francis Walsingham, a number of priests were arrested, tortured for their knowledge, and subjected to a macabre traitor’s death. These executions inspired a cult of martyrdom that attracted many less zealous Catholics to their cause. These people were like the Jesuits in Germany during the Thirty Years War! Actually this book clearly mentions about the Jesuits in England at the same time with the same covert mission in the country in later pages. I highly rate this brief, yet informative book.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Anirudh

    Most are aware of the current monarch of the United Kingdom, Elizabeth II, but not so much about her 16th century namesake, Elizabeth I. This is a short biography of the English monarch by Hourly History. It starts with how when Elizabeth took over, the country was in turmoil. She took over from her half-sister Mary, notoriously known as Bloody Mary for her aggressive push to reintroduce Catholicism in England. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII from his second marriage, to Anne Boleyn and Most are aware of the current monarch of the United Kingdom, Elizabeth II, but not so much about her 16th century namesake, Elizabeth I. This is a short biography of the English monarch by Hourly History. It starts with how when Elizabeth took over, the country was in turmoil. She took over from her half-sister Mary, notoriously known as Bloody Mary for her aggressive push to reintroduce Catholicism in England. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII from his second marriage, to Anne Boleyn and many Catholics in the kingdom viewed her claim to the throne lacking legitimacy, as they didn’t recognise the annulment of Henry VIII’s first marriage. It goes on to talk about how Elizabeth had to initially consolidate her power and at the same time, also maintain religious harmony between Catholics and Protestants. However, she was faced with succession battles from both internal and external forces, with the French supporting Mary, the Queen of Scots (Elizabeth’s cousin) to succeed the throne and many Catholics in England seeing her as the legitimate successor. It then elaborates on her decision to not marry and keeping her suitors guessing and also about her various military victories, most famously the Spanish Armada. It also focused on her relationship with her cousin, Mary the Queen of Scots and the eventual souring of the relationship, considering the latter’s constant push for claiming the throne herself. This book revisited English history during the 16th Century, the constant question of succession looming over Britain. The fact that there was a looming threat of political instability throughout her reign was brought out well. Her ability to deal with the nobles within her own kingdom and negotiate with other kingdoms, such as Spain and Netherlands, was also well explained. Ultimately, this also fit the time frame of one hour, as that was all it took to complete it. The aspect that was lacking in the book was that though it asserted that Mary and Elizabeth shared a close relationship, it was never convincing, as, throughout, Mary had been plotting to usurp the throne and mercy seemed to be only from Elizabeth’s side. Perhaps, if the authors had substantiated one of the letters that had been exchanged, it could have been brought to the fore better. On the whole, this was a well compiled biography and I would award the book a rating of four on five.

  6. 4 out of 5

    gss

    The writer touched upon the important events in the life of Queen Elizabeth I with enough details to understand the challenges she faced during her period. Especially her humane attitude towards Queen Mary , Mother of James VI, is quite evident. Yet she could not stop the execution as she had to oblige the judgment of the council appointed by her. The author showed clearly how the royal persons cannot marry according to their choice and Queen Elizabeth remained a virgin to keep her kingdom and The writer touched upon the important events in the life of Queen Elizabeth I with enough details to understand the challenges she faced during her period. Especially her humane attitude towards Queen Mary , Mother of James VI, is quite evident. Yet she could not stop the execution as she had to oblige the judgment of the council appointed by her. The author showed clearly how the royal persons cannot marry according to their choice and Queen Elizabeth remained a virgin to keep her kingdom and her people safe and avoid internal strife . The author could have added a few details about her patronage of English drama and the great literary poets and dramatists associated with her. He should also have given a clear picture of Elizabeth's personality, her tastes and her favorite hobbies. of course the author has given most of the requisite details for readers to understand about queen's life.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Sara

    If you want the entirety of Queen Elizabeth I's reign in 50 pages, this is your book. It hit the highlights, and touched on a couple of things I didn't remember. Ironically, after focusing on the political and religious intrigue and upheaval, the final comments referenced that her reign was largely one of peace. If you want the entirety of Queen Elizabeth I's reign in 50 pages, this is your book. It hit the highlights, and touched on a couple of things I didn't remember. Ironically, after focusing on the political and religious intrigue and upheaval, the final comments referenced that her reign was largely one of peace.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Molly

    WOW I knew absolutely nothing about The Virgin Queen. It was only after reading a different book that my interest was piqued. I am so happy to have been able to read this little volume. Queen Elizabeth I was such an amazing and strong woman. Completely inspirational.

  9. 4 out of 5

    Patsy

    This is a powerful book filled with dates, Kings and Queens of England, Scotland, and numerous other countries. This is a biography of Queen Elizabeth Tudor, born on September 7, 1533 at the Palace of Placentia, daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, King Henry's second wife. King Henry died in 1547. Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, Mary Tudor who reigned as Queen for five years before her death. Elizabeth as a young child age two years eight months had 250 servants to care for her and This is a powerful book filled with dates, Kings and Queens of England, Scotland, and numerous other countries. This is a biography of Queen Elizabeth Tudor, born on September 7, 1533 at the Palace of Placentia, daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, King Henry's second wife. King Henry died in 1547. Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, Mary Tudor who reigned as Queen for five years before her death. Elizabeth as a young child age two years eight months had 250 servants to care for her and to serve her. In Elizabeth's earlier years she was well educated she learned five languages, religion and politics. When Queen Mary died, Elizabeth Tudor became Queen at age 25. She became known as the 'Virgin Queen' she said 'I am already bound unto a husband, which is the King of England '. Although she had numerous men proposed to her during her life she was very shrew and would give it some thought before giving an answer of no. She had an expanded parliament for guidance, support and care for matters that came up. The kingdom grew stronger and increased in wealth under Queen Elizabeth's watchful eye. I enjoyed reading this powerful book and it has increased my knowledge of the Tudor's that ruled during this era in England and the trying times that the Queen went through. I am more knowledgeable of the parliament, Kings and Queens and especially the people that were ruling in England during the 1500's. Queen Elizabeth I reigned for 45 years before she died. This is a short review there is more details in the book. A good read! I love these books.

  10. 4 out of 5

    derick prentice

    Very easy read, seemed to concentrate on Scottish Mary but thats understandable.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Shannon Wright

    It was okay. It was an easy and quick read but it was very basic. There was almost no information on her young life. I would suggest for a person who is new to reading about the Tudors.

  12. 4 out of 5

    Thomas Mihalchick

    I love this series I recently saw the "Mary, Queen of Scots" film and after having read this book and the one on Mary, Queen of Scots I understand the history much better. I love the short format. It's precise and right to the point. I love this series I recently saw the "Mary, Queen of Scots" film and after having read this book and the one on Mary, Queen of Scots I understand the history much better. I love the short format. It's precise and right to the point.

  13. 5 out of 5

    laura

    Enjoyable I love these books small bite sizes of history. So enjoyable i like to read these before I decide if I'm going to read more in depth about particular people or events Enjoyable I love these books small bite sizes of history. So enjoyable i like to read these before I decide if I'm going to read more in depth about particular people or events

  14. 5 out of 5

    Michele

    Great if you're looking for a quick refresher course on Elizabeth I, or if your opinion on most biographies is "TL;DR". Great if you're looking for a quick refresher course on Elizabeth I, or if your opinion on most biographies is "TL;DR".

  15. 4 out of 5

    Olivia Castetter

    Quick read, lots of info This book will definitely be a part of my homeschooling curriculum in the future. An excellent brief overview of the reign of Elizabeth I.

  16. 5 out of 5

    Terri Gostola

    There is an incredible amount of information packed into this brief biography. Born in 1533, Elizabeth was the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth's mother was executed when she was two and a half years old and raised my her half sister, Mary. After Henry's death, his son by his third marriage became king and then he died of tuberculosis at the age of fifteen, which meant that next in line for the thrown was Mary. She reigned for five difficult years and becam There is an incredible amount of information packed into this brief biography. Born in 1533, Elizabeth was the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth's mother was executed when she was two and a half years old and raised my her half sister, Mary. After Henry's death, his son by his third marriage became king and then he died of tuberculosis at the age of fifteen, which meant that next in line for the thrown was Mary. She reigned for five difficult years and became known as Bloody Mary because she introduced laws of heresy that sanctioned the burning at the stake of 300 Protestants. Mary died and Elizabeth ascended to the throne at the age of twenty five. Immediately there was controversy and the king of France publicly declared that Elizabeth was a bastard and therefore unfit to rule and he claimed that the true queen of England was his own niece, Mary Queen of Scots. After many years and much controversy and Mary Queen of Scots attempts to overthrow Elizabeth, it finally came to pass that Elizabeth had Mary Queen of Scots executed, and the book describes it as quite gruesome. It took two blows to sever Mary's head and once the deed was done a small dog emerged from his hiding place in Mary's robes and lay shivering in a pool of Mary's blood. Elizabeth was conflicted over signing Mary's death warrant and was plunged into despair. This is dramatic story of her conflicts with Mary Queen of Scots is only one small part of what is detailed in this biography. Elizabeth ruled for 45 years and her reign is known as the Elizabethan period. Elizabeth died in 1603 of pneumonia. Just hours after her death, King James VI of Scotland, Mary Queen of Scot's only child, was named king. I was struck by the irony.

  17. 4 out of 5

    Jerry Jares

    I thought this book was amazing; it was a very clear explanation of the trials Elizabeth faced, particularly with Mary, Queen of Scots. Elizabeth was truly her father's daughter.  She ruled with guile and guts for 45 years.  She navigated so many trials in her small nation.  She chose not to name a successor (and not marry and have children) so she would not be vulnerable to a coup.  One has to admire her for giving up so much.  Out of respect, her citizens named her age -- The Elizabethan Era. T I thought this book was amazing; it was a very clear explanation of the trials Elizabeth faced, particularly with Mary, Queen of Scots. Elizabeth was truly her father's daughter.  She ruled with guile and guts for 45 years.  She navigated so many trials in her small nation.  She chose not to name a successor (and not marry and have children) so she would not be vulnerable to a coup.  One has to admire her for giving up so much.  Out of respect, her citizens named her age -- The Elizabethan Era. The religious rebellion was still rife in England under Elizabeth and she did all she could to be tolerant (and not prosecute Catholics).  She had to be watchful because Europe was still in foment regarding the new Church of England. This book is an excellent intro to the 'wonderful world' of English court intrigues.  This story shows that Elizabeth was in danger for most of her life; the Catholic Church wanted her gone (and suggested a Crusade to take it over), Catholic citizens wanted their religion back, and even Mary, Queen of Scots plotted against her.  And yet, Elizabeth died in her own bed after outwitting countless suitors and rebellions aplenty.    Elizabeth was a remarkable woman. She did not fill her treasury (as she'd hoped) but she presided over a country that had gravitas and respect by the end of her reign.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Sarah Crawford

    She was the daughter of Henry VIII, a daughter he didn't really want much to do with, having someone else take care of her away from the castle. He mother was exectued. Wonderful. She became queen in 1588, never married, and was a Catholic but was tolerant of Protestants. She was also really good with languages, speaking English, Flemish, Italian, Spanish, French and Greek. It's also likely she was sexually molested when she was younger which could possibly be one of the reasons she never chose t She was the daughter of Henry VIII, a daughter he didn't really want much to do with, having someone else take care of her away from the castle. He mother was exectued. Wonderful. She became queen in 1588, never married, and was a Catholic but was tolerant of Protestants. She was also really good with languages, speaking English, Flemish, Italian, Spanish, French and Greek. It's also likely she was sexually molested when she was younger which could possibly be one of the reasons she never chose to get married. The book also discusses her relationship with Mary Queen of Scots, a problem with smallpox and a Pope basically putting out a hit on her. The book has a lot more in it, of course. To me she is one of the most interesting English characters ever and that's basically why I got this book.

  19. 4 out of 5

    Frances Torres

    ◾From the moment she was conceived, Queen Elizabeth I of England was the subject of controversy. ◾Her mother was executed when she was two and a half years old, and she was raised as Henry's daughter but not Henry's heir. ◾Elizabeth became Queen in 1558, succeeding her half- sister Mary Tudor to the throne. ◾“Two beheadings out of six wives is too many.”—King Henry VIII of England ◾Not everything Elizabeth is remembered for is positive, though; in the later years of her reign Elizabeth had her cousi ◾From the moment she was conceived, Queen Elizabeth I of England was the subject of controversy. ◾Her mother was executed when she was two and a half years old, and she was raised as Henry's daughter but not Henry's heir. ◾Elizabeth became Queen in 1558, succeeding her half- sister Mary Tudor to the throne. ◾“Two beheadings out of six wives is too many.”—King Henry VIII of England ◾Not everything Elizabeth is remembered for is positive, though; in the later years of her reign Elizabeth had her cousin Mary Queen of Scots executed ◾"In the end, this shall be for me sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin.”—Queen Elizabeth I of England 👸

  20. 5 out of 5

    Nihal Lele

    Queen Elizabeth 1 lived in religious and political turmoil raging in England. It surprised me that she ruled for 45 years. She had complicated relations with rulers, MPs, and her own relatives. The author clearly managed to capture all these events in about 50 pages. It was a great book not leaving a single major event of Elizabeth's life. Queen Elizabeth 1 lived in religious and political turmoil raging in England. It surprised me that she ruled for 45 years. She had complicated relations with rulers, MPs, and her own relatives. The author clearly managed to capture all these events in about 50 pages. It was a great book not leaving a single major event of Elizabeth's life.

  21. 4 out of 5

    Anil Swarup

    The intrigues underlying British History, specially during the 16th century, are articulated quite vividly in the book that centres around the persona of Queen Elizabeth. Hourly History does a commendable job, yet again

  22. 5 out of 5

    Lauryn hall

    A lot of wrong and missing information I don't think this is a good short history on elizabeth, there was quite a bit of false or unproven information stated as fact, also a lot of important things were missed that gave a true impression of her characte. A lot of wrong and missing information I don't think this is a good short history on elizabeth, there was quite a bit of false or unproven information stated as fact, also a lot of important things were missed that gave a true impression of her characte.

  23. 4 out of 5

    ATUL KUMAR

    Captivating Biography of Elizabeth I A luicid and engrossing biography of Elizabeth I , which apart from the life of Elizabeth I , brings to fore the political & religious machinations prevailing in the 16th century England & Europe. A must read for those interested in British history.

  24. 4 out of 5

    mark leyshon

    Queen Elizabeth I: a life from beginning to end A very good introduction to anyone interested in the life of one of the most famous queens in history. I hope that the reader will want to learn more about the virgin queen and dig deeper into the vast array of literature on her.

  25. 5 out of 5

    George Polansky

    A one-sided view of Elizabeth I.

  26. 4 out of 5

    Kristen

    I thoroughly enjoy these books!

  27. 5 out of 5

    Chic

    Short little account (less than 100 pages) of stuff I already knew.

  28. 4 out of 5

    Nicole

    2021 POPSUGAR Reading Challenge: A book whose title starts with “Q,” “X,” or “Z”

  29. 4 out of 5

    Olivia Hennessy

  30. 4 out of 5

    Sue

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