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The Appalachian Trail: A Biography

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The Appalachian Trail is America’s most beloved trek, with millions of hikers setting foot on it every year. Yet few are aware of the fascinating backstory of the dreamers and builders who helped bring it to life over the past century. The conception and building of the Appalachian Trail is a story of unforgettable characters who explored it, defined it, and captured nation The Appalachian Trail is America’s most beloved trek, with millions of hikers setting foot on it every year. Yet few are aware of the fascinating backstory of the dreamers and builders who helped bring it to life over the past century. The conception and building of the Appalachian Trail is a story of unforgettable characters who explored it, defined it, and captured national attention by hiking it. From Grandma Gatewood—a mother of eleven who thru-hiked in canvas sneakers and a drawstring duffle—to Bill Bryson, author of the best-selling A Walk in the Woods, the AT has seized the American imagination like no other hiking path. The 2,000-mile-long hike from Georgia to Maine is not just a trail through the woods, but a set of ideas about nature etched in the forest floor. This character-driven biography of the trail is a must-read not just for ambitious hikers, but for anyone who wonders about our relationship with the great outdoors and dreams of getting away from urban life for a pilgrimage in the wild.


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The Appalachian Trail is America’s most beloved trek, with millions of hikers setting foot on it every year. Yet few are aware of the fascinating backstory of the dreamers and builders who helped bring it to life over the past century. The conception and building of the Appalachian Trail is a story of unforgettable characters who explored it, defined it, and captured nation The Appalachian Trail is America’s most beloved trek, with millions of hikers setting foot on it every year. Yet few are aware of the fascinating backstory of the dreamers and builders who helped bring it to life over the past century. The conception and building of the Appalachian Trail is a story of unforgettable characters who explored it, defined it, and captured national attention by hiking it. From Grandma Gatewood—a mother of eleven who thru-hiked in canvas sneakers and a drawstring duffle—to Bill Bryson, author of the best-selling A Walk in the Woods, the AT has seized the American imagination like no other hiking path. The 2,000-mile-long hike from Georgia to Maine is not just a trail through the woods, but a set of ideas about nature etched in the forest floor. This character-driven biography of the trail is a must-read not just for ambitious hikers, but for anyone who wonders about our relationship with the great outdoors and dreams of getting away from urban life for a pilgrimage in the wild.

30 review for The Appalachian Trail: A Biography

  1. 5 out of 5

    Alicia Farmer

    This is not a book I'd ever read if I weren't married to the author. ;) Histories are not my thing. But I appreciated learning how this legendary trail came to be, and about the people who were attracted to it. Each chapter profiles, in more or less chronological order, various individuals who played a key role in the Appalachian Trail's formation. Some players were thinkers, whose idea for a trail along a single geologic feature captured the imagination of others who were willing to do the phys This is not a book I'd ever read if I weren't married to the author. ;) Histories are not my thing. But I appreciated learning how this legendary trail came to be, and about the people who were attracted to it. Each chapter profiles, in more or less chronological order, various individuals who played a key role in the Appalachian Trail's formation. Some players were thinkers, whose idea for a trail along a single geologic feature captured the imagination of others who were willing to do the physical bushwhacking required. Others were savvy bureaucrats who were able to champion the idea in Washington. And still others were restless souls looking for some peace, higher meaning, or escape in simply hiking the thing. It was striking how almost every person profiled was odd, singularly focused, and, not surprisingly, most at home on their own among trees. There's a type. I wish the book had more of what D'Anieri alludes to in places (and elaborates on in person, trust me!), which is the way the trail is a mirror for changing societal notions of "nature" and "wilderness." Early in its history, post-Enlightenment trail visionaries sought to classify and master nature as a demonstration of scientific dominance. By the 70's the "back-to-nature" ethos sent lots of (white) suburbanites into the woods for a connection to everything they missed by commuting to and working in cities. It's not a long book, so it should work well for anyone who wants a case study in parks creation.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Judith Babarsky

    While the premise of the book appears interesting -- the stories of 12 individuals who were instrumental in bringing the vision of a interstate wilderness trail to fruition -- the execution is choppy. Some of the chapters, notably those of Benton Mackaye and Myron Avery (arch rivals) are excellent. However, the story of these two men was told extensively in Jeff Ryan's book, "Blazing Ahead: Benton MacKaye, Myron Avery, and the Rivalry That Built the Appalachian Trail." The initial chapters, prio While the premise of the book appears interesting -- the stories of 12 individuals who were instrumental in bringing the vision of a interstate wilderness trail to fruition -- the execution is choppy. Some of the chapters, notably those of Benton Mackaye and Myron Avery (arch rivals) are excellent. However, the story of these two men was told extensively in Jeff Ryan's book, "Blazing Ahead: Benton MacKaye, Myron Avery, and the Rivalry That Built the Appalachian Trail." The initial chapters, prior to that of Mackaye (Chapter 4), were fairly dry, not particularly engaging, and at times I wondered what the significance of the individuals was to the overall story. It was as if D'Anieri hadn't quite decided exactly what he wanted his book to be. This was particularly true in his Introduction where he provides long descriptions of the geological history of the Appalachian mountains. For me, the book became more interesting beginning with Chapter 6 and the story of Earl Shaffer, the first acknowledged thru hiker of the AT (1948) and the following year, Emma Gatewood. It was interesting, as well, to read about the various strong opinions the hikers held as to what exactly counted as a "thru-hike." Chapter 7 is the story of Senator Gaylord Nelson, who introduced legislation in 1964 to provide federal protection for the AT. Nelson, neither outdoorsman nor hiker, was emblematic of a new environmentalism that was taking root in American politics. He worked to preserve the wilderness nature of the trail and prevent further encroachment of postwar development. In addition to his efforts to protect the AT, Nelson is also remembered for having organized the first Earth Day in April 1970. Chapter 8 is similarly involved with telling more of the history of the AT and federal legislation as well as its interface with the National Park Service. Chapter 9 tells the story of Bill Bryson -- but to truly appreciate Bill Bryson one must read Bryson's own account as related in "A Walk in the Woods." Bryson is hilariously, laugh-out-loud funny. Chapter 10 seems to be a discourse on the author's opinions concerning the purpose of the trail. Is it for short-distance hikes? Long-distance hiking? At one point in the chapter, the author comments on three young men with Mountain Dew and cigarettes getting ready to hike, "They provided a sharp and, to my eyes, welcome contrast to the typical REI-adorned denizens of the trail." This is the same author, who, in the Introduction, sets off on a 5-6 hour up and back hike up a smallish mountain on a Georgia portion of the trail with no water. Seriously? What kind of idiot does that??? No wonder he takes a liking to the cigarette smoking "hikers." In fact, the author goes on to argue, in Chapter 10, in favor of a accessible trail noting that a more remote experience requires specialized gear, knowledge of what you're doing, etc. He decries the predominant "whiteness" of the Skyline Drive in Virginia. Again, is he writing a book about the history of the AT or a book about race and the great outdoors? He needs to make up his mind. The last several pages of the book provide the author's take on the effect of the internet on the AT. Again, this could be a complete book all to itself. The author speaks of the ability to move knowledge quickly from reliable maps to informing others of one's progress on the trail. The second relates to those on the trail broadcasting back to civilization, producing a public performance so to speak. And the third is the blurring of the line between wilderness and civilization. All in all, there were enjoyable parts of the book. But it didn't hang together as a whole book with a discernable beginning through to a cogent end. Although the book does seem to fill a void, in that most books about the AT tend to tell the story of the hiking experience, it could have been better done.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Keith Taylor

    D'Anieri gives a clear presentation of the making of the trail, the people involved, and the political choices that were made to make it. The book answers questions I have had about the trail in a prose that is finely wrought but never intrusive. Perhaps I wondered about the chapter on Bill Bryson -- the celebrity chapter that didn't have anything to do with the making or maintaining of the trail -- but I was won over in the description of what the trail has become, the kind of touchstone it is D'Anieri gives a clear presentation of the making of the trail, the people involved, and the political choices that were made to make it. The book answers questions I have had about the trail in a prose that is finely wrought but never intrusive. Perhaps I wondered about the chapter on Bill Bryson -- the celebrity chapter that didn't have anything to do with the making or maintaining of the trail -- but I was won over in the description of what the trail has become, the kind of touchstone it is now, and Bryson was a part of that. I was pleased that he got to some personal experience of the trail at the end, and might have wished for a bit more of that along the way. Still, that might have interrupted the flow of each chapter, always focussed on the historical or political figure who shaped the whole experience. Was also very pleased that D'Anieri noted a time or two that the trail reflects white American experience of the natural world. How that still seems to determine the kinds of people who make the venture. This does seem as if it is one of the most pressing issues in the environmental movement at this moment in history.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Caroline

    Lots of interesting research and reconsideration of popular myths about 'the outdoors,' with some real down and dirty politics, too. The conceit is to tell the life stories of several individuals whose lives were intertwined with the Appalachian Trail, and also to make the reader think about how our whole idea of nature and open space and recreation are constructed ideas. Also, that specific political and rhetorical decisions are responsible for institutions like the AT to exist in the form that Lots of interesting research and reconsideration of popular myths about 'the outdoors,' with some real down and dirty politics, too. The conceit is to tell the life stories of several individuals whose lives were intertwined with the Appalachian Trail, and also to make the reader think about how our whole idea of nature and open space and recreation are constructed ideas. Also, that specific political and rhetorical decisions are responsible for institutions like the AT to exist in the form that they do. (The biggest, "Oh duh" for me was that the whole concept of national parks and 'the great outdoors' in their 20th century form depended on highways and the automobile -- a blessing and a curse if there ever was one).

  5. 5 out of 5

    Casey Wheeler

    This book has twelve chapters with each devoted to an individual who had some impact on the development of the Appalachian Trail. Some of the chapters were well done and engaging while others were borderline boring making this a very uneven read. It is informative for those who have an interest in the Appalachian Trail, but have not read much about it. I received a free Kindle copy of this book courtesy of Net Galley and the publisher with the understanding that I would post a review on Net Galle This book has twelve chapters with each devoted to an individual who had some impact on the development of the Appalachian Trail. Some of the chapters were well done and engaging while others were borderline boring making this a very uneven read. It is informative for those who have an interest in the Appalachian Trail, but have not read much about it. I received a free Kindle copy of this book courtesy of Net Galley and the publisher with the understanding that I would post a review on Net Galley, Goodreads, Amazon and my nonfiction book review blog. I also posted it to my Facebook page.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Margaret D'Anieri

    4.5 if that were an option - what I appreciated (as a mostly dispassionate reader) was the strong writing and the appreciation of the paradox of the trail throughout its history and the changes in the idea, ideals and reality of the trail: that to enjoy nature, you have to beat back nature enough to get to something like an AT; that in one place at least, the trail is routed alongside an interstate - a metaphor for its sometimes uneasy relationship with the people who use it and the people aroun 4.5 if that were an option - what I appreciated (as a mostly dispassionate reader) was the strong writing and the appreciation of the paradox of the trail throughout its history and the changes in the idea, ideals and reality of the trail: that to enjoy nature, you have to beat back nature enough to get to something like an AT; that in one place at least, the trail is routed alongside an interstate - a metaphor for its sometimes uneasy relationship with the people who use it and the people around it.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Melissa

    *This book was received as an Advanced Reader's Copy from NetGalley. One day I want to hike the AT, until then, I satisfy myself by reading books about it and the people who have traveled it, namely thru-hikes. This book is a bit different though, it's not about any one persons thru-hike, but more about the people who helped to build the AT in the first place, and their contributions to its preservation. Starting with the man who mapped the mountains (Guyot), heading through the earliest hiking cl *This book was received as an Advanced Reader's Copy from NetGalley. One day I want to hike the AT, until then, I satisfy myself by reading books about it and the people who have traveled it, namely thru-hikes. This book is a bit different though, it's not about any one persons thru-hike, but more about the people who helped to build the AT in the first place, and their contributions to its preservation. Starting with the man who mapped the mountains (Guyot), heading through the earliest hiking clubs and start of other trails(Taylor), to the people building the actual trail (Avery) and securing its protection (Nelson); there are a lot of people in the development of the trail itself. To be honest, I had never really thought about how the trail was built or when it was built or how much time it took. And those are questions I should have asked because the answers are interesting. While some thru-hikers are mentioned; notably the first (Shaffer) and the first woman a few years after (Gatewood), Bill Bryson and his best-seller also make the list because of impact. The book was very approachable to read. Sometimes history, even on something as interesting as the AT, can get dry, and I appreciated that this book flowed smoothly the whole way through and provided narratives of the individuals lives in addition to what they were doing for the trail itself. The amount of work that's gone into the trail both to design and protect it is impressive. The author also speaks to environmental impact and demographics of the trail, which I thought were good callouts as well. If you like reading thru-hiking accounts, give this book a try. It will make you appreciate the AT all the more. Review by M. Reynard 2020

  8. 4 out of 5

    Misti

    As an AT and Florida Trail thru-hiker I was quite excited to read this book based on the premise of it being an overarching biography of the Appalachian Trail. And it very nearly does that but with my kindle saying I had 75% of the book read, the book just ends! The remaining 25% is bibliography and resources, which are greatly appreciated, but the last chapter acted as if it was tacked on randomly to create a vision of a tidy ending. There's a huge 20+ years of trail history missing after Bill As an AT and Florida Trail thru-hiker I was quite excited to read this book based on the premise of it being an overarching biography of the Appalachian Trail. And it very nearly does that but with my kindle saying I had 75% of the book read, the book just ends! The remaining 25% is bibliography and resources, which are greatly appreciated, but the last chapter acted as if it was tacked on randomly to create a vision of a tidy ending. There's a huge 20+ years of trail history missing after Bill Bryson. The author attempts to summarize that with his sporadic section hiking and glossing over the recent technology access to the trail but he leaves out a huge section of other folks, primarily the hikers themselves, from the story. Where are the FKTers of the last 20 years, what of Trail Angels and Trail Maintainers of significance, book authors, and even discussion about podcasters and more in depth information about technology on the trail and hiking celebrities? What even of the natural history of the trail? For this, the book fell hugely short. I really appreciated the middle sections of the book, particularly about the evolving protection of the AT during that time period. I wanted to love it but I ended up merely liking it for the sudden ending of the book. As a touted Biography, this book falls drastically short. *I received and ARC via NetGalley in exchange for my review*

  9. 5 out of 5

    Laura

    Filled with info about how it was constructed and some of the most famous people to go for a walk (cough cough Grandma Gatewood), this book is a must if you want to know the nitty gritty about the AT. I especially loved the chapter on Bryson and Gatewood. I learned a lot and I can’t wait to give it a stroll someday!

  10. 5 out of 5

    Robin Tierney

    notes...not a review: The Appalachian Trail: A Biography By Philip D’Anieri Mt Greylock VT … he didn’t bring water. 2,100 mile at conceived 1861, completed 1937 Appalachian trail story told through various individuals who made it happen and popularized and protected it. Crossing the threshold into nature is a refreshing alternative to society, to nature as a dangerous and heartless master. Arnold Guyot. Swiss scientist revered and fascinated by the mountain geology. The ecological worldview, new. Alex notes...not a review: The Appalachian Trail: A Biography By Philip D’Anieri Mt Greylock VT … he didn’t bring water. 2,100 mile at conceived 1861, completed 1937 Appalachian trail story told through various individuals who made it happen and popularized and protected it. Crossing the threshold into nature is a refreshing alternative to society, to nature as a dangerous and heartless master. Arnold Guyot. Swiss scientist revered and fascinated by the mountain geology. The ecological worldview, new. Alexander von Humboldt leading scientist. (reflects worldview white privilege). Early 1800s journey encyclopedic accounts of all that he encountered plants, animals, mountains, weather. Essential concepts that we now take for granted— changes in elevation yield predictable changes in plant novel life, ocean currents and land features influence weather patterns Dash first articulated by Humboldt. Dynamic forces impacting a static world that God created. Saw the interactions between weather, water, topography over time. Drama.oogy student, natural world every other minute. Before universities etc paid for scientific inquiries. Unlock secrets of long-ago glacial activity. What was terra incognita. Elevation. Theology. The Earth and Man bestseller. Organization and dynamism of nature. Entourage, expedition. Neuchatel taught. Guyot could find the deity as easily in the boulders of the mountains as in the stones of a cathedral. The places we choose, on the way away then develop management, tell us a lot about what we are asking for nature, what exactly we think we’re traveling toward and escaping from, where I want to strike a balance between maddening civilization on one hand, and heartless nature on the other. AT individuals crafted an environment around us. Mt. Katahdin Maine north terminus in a park, not approach by canoe and portage. Trail builders, donors, citizen-scientists, organizer volunteers. Colossal vs wasteland. Climbing to the highest point in New England without paths, maps. Bear trails on ridgelines, if the traveler consents to travel on hands and feet. Rhodo shrubs thick in Carolinas 1859. Mt Mitchell NC is named for the scientist who fell to his death trying to measure its elevation. Guyot map is a fine-grained complex of individual summits, ridges and valleys. It suggests the ordered irregularity of a leaf’s edge, or a forest’s treetops. Made mountains fascinating and knowable vs. vague and mysterious. Guyot: like a buffet created for mankind. Darwin held a competing world view, not mesh with man’s needs. But the vulgar reality - an ongoing competition for survival. 1880 Appalachian Mountain Club, right when Guyot died. Horace Kephart Librarian urban drunk, American hiker dean. Great Smoky Mountains. Restless, seeking. As a librarian, called himself a gatekeeper of trivia rather than an organizer of world knowledge. Mountain named for him in Smokies, first eastern np 1940. James Taylor in Vermont 1908. Educator. Made going into the mountains such as the green mountains of Vermont part of the curriculum. And alternative to team sports. The national character and personal character. Part of the homeland, as in Germany. At the same time, there are two different views of calling into nature.Keep it pristine and wild for the few who could tough it out. Or create lands that can be popular getaways. 1910-1917 Green Mountain club, building Long Trail with exceptional scenic spots, a dazzling succession of rock our crops, Mossey glaze, secluded hollows, airy ledges, arching her back, hold her hips and chaos with mysterious openings leading to unfastened recesses, or expose rock slabs commanding sweeping views of rugged mountainsides. Taylor was an early clean water advocate, recognizing the farm ways and treated city sewage was ruining waterways. Suicide drowning when boating in lake. Visionary of the Appalachian Trail Benton MacKaye. His musings run closer to half-baked philosophy than actionable policy. Forester who proselytized for a better world. Clearcutting for us a rise to a conservation movement. Water washing down the mountain side affected interstate commerce, enabling intervention by the federal government. Excesses of the exploitive American economy. Recreational instead of commercial use of land. He conceived of garden cities as a solution to urban sprawl, such as Greenbelt Maryland. Regional planning. Advocated conserving wilderness made in the 1930s. Deserves credit for inspiring regional trails across the country. Your post drive such a Skyline Drive that would bring automobiles into the heart of wilderness ****Trivia vs Wisdom Kinds of people drawn to hike in wilderness and motivations and rewards. Frederick Jackson Turner historian: America based on the meeting of savagery and civilization. Back to Nature movement 1890s. Escape the regimen of city life. Self-reliance, simplicity. Trail clubs cleared miles. Guidebook. Not just philosophy. Myron Avery got the AT built. Trails blazed, shelters built, two ends connected. Trail markers Problems like: ridgeline from Mt Washington in NH to Katahdin in Maine ran nowhere near even small cities. Myron Avery\NPS built Skyone Drive through Shenandoah National Park, bringing motorists to the same peaks and along the same route that the AT had only recently opened up to hikers. Hear traffic. In 1940s NPS announced an extension of the Skyline Drive - Blue Ridge Parkway would reach more than 450 miles from Shenandoah NP to the Smokies, requiring a realignment of 100 miles of AT. Earl Shaffer 1948 first thru-hike. Georgia to Maine. Bushwacking instead of backtracking. Emma Gatewood 1954 66 years old: Freedom to walk. Abused life. Started Katahdin first. Next year from GA. Relied on her grit and wits.. 70s twice more, and Hocking Hills hike. Travelers drawn to immersive transformative experiences. Outdoor customs. Gaylord Nelson senator 1964 Wisco. Provide fed protection for the AT. Conservation movement. Picked up on the burgeoning sentiment. Pollution and escape from suburban development. Middle class, spearheaded outdoor recreation agenda in Michigan. Save natural resources. 1962 Silent Spring by Rachel Carson. Toxic effects of DDT. People killing their own world. Bill bn on phosphates in detergents. Nelson was a fierce advocate. Act now or people are not going to have clean water to drink, clean air to breathe, decent soil in which to grow their food, and a green outdoors to live a few decades from now. Speech landmark. Movement to mainstream. Frustrations of modernity. LBJ The Wilderness Act created a category of federal land off-limits to roads and buildings. And established the Land and Water Conservation Fund. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act declared some sections off-limits to dams and other major developments. Protect AT and PCT and future tails. Already development along the Oregon Trail. April 22, 1970 Earth Day teach-ins. Between 1969 and 1974 5-fold increase in the number of thru-hikers ATC membership increase 10 times over. AT overrun with popularity. Crowds lacked the sense of stewardship that the trail’s earlier users had had. Edmund Muskie Maine came along to negotiate complex environmental statutes. Me;spm ,pved tp advocating more radical solutions than were politically practicable. Nostalgia for simpler times and resentment toward big government grew into a potent ideology embodied in the sunny disposition and arch conservatism of California governor Ronald Reagan. Nelson was voted out in 1980. Reagan wobn 44 states. Boundless optimism. Bureaucrats, academics, politicians, outdoors people. McAfee knob southwestern Virginia ships proud of a slab of rock jutting from Catawba Mountain. Originally on private land, so the trail Had been rerouted after acquisition. Securing the corridor. Tug of war between ATC and local clubs. And NPS. Congress committed to protecting the AT in 1978. Saddleback Mountain skiing in Maine. A condition of his donation was to continue access for skiing. Battle political. Bill Bryson a walk in the woods. 1998. The seller brought attention. The trail was a backdrop for his human foolishness. Freelancing is a constant hustle to Find topics within the writer's reach and simultaneously of interest editors will pay for the work. Wrote an essay about oddball statistics that scientists turn out every day like toilet paper production measure in terms of an imaginary rolling around the equator. In a style that was by turns acerbic and poignant, Bryson conveyed a world where in us that, while it could come across as contempt… As well as captured a heartfelt reckoning with a perplexing world. Sarcastic. Became a brand-name. Next to write about his waddlesome sloth Fending for himself in the wilderness. Recruited drunk companion Angerer. Georgia’s Springer Mountain. A buddy comedy. The boo was a hit, with Bryson described as a satirist with Chaucerian brio. Trail enthusiast s were appalled…demeaning caricatures of Southerners, disinterest in the trail's larger ideals, father for pop-culture, like the uninvited guest who turned the music up till 11, invited all his friends over. He exemplified typical quitter rationalization, “i didn’t quit; my goals changed.” In the first year of the book's release, the ATC estimated to 45% increase in starting thru-hikers. Wear and tear on the trail. His follow-up was a short history of nearly everything, explaining how the world worked in a humorous 600 pages. Philip likens his own short hikes to thru hikes as a stroll around the block compares to marathon Parked to start at Springer within the Chattahoochee National Forest. Countless footfalls wore down trail. Most of the trail is wooded.m, but not particularly scenic. McAfee 6 miles off the interstate, parking lot trailhead, Two hour hike to the famous overlook. Pennsylvania’s Cumberland Valley is surrounded by human habitation rather than expenses for us, the AT crosses through here like a shy person cross a crowded bar. Town parks, housing developments, farmland, roads. And illusion of wilderness, since much of the trail can’t be isolated from the developed landscape. But there is a seemingly unbroken stretch of wilderness looking east toward New York from New Jersey Kittatinny Ridge. But then again, there’s a place for the 80 is a sidewalk on an interstate toll bridge, with a waist-high concrete barrier separating hikers from I-80 traffic hurtling towards New York City about 60 miles away. The wild interrupted by a hiker streaming music on his phone. Different ways to enjoy nature. In New Hampshire, the White Mountains has a tenting site area and it contains the crush of hikers each summer. Today’s hiker is far less alone and has the support of technology, resources, and communication. He hiked Saddleback Mountain in Maine, which juts above the shorter mountains. Ridgeline trail goes through the clouds and offers. Landscapes majestic and ordinary along the trail help us see a bigger picture.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Therese Thompson

    I enjoyed this history of America’s greatest trail, but not as much as other books in this topic. Some of this history is hard to make exciting, but this was competently covered.

  12. 5 out of 5

    CB_Read

    The divide between nature and society has always interested me, especially since the rapid urbanization of everyday life over the past two hundred years that created this divide in the first place. How people could ever consider themselves separately from their environment is impossible to answer sensibly--but many of us can think of good reasons of how and why we are separate from "the environment," the non-urban natural world that always remains out there beyond the walls of civilization. Nowhe The divide between nature and society has always interested me, especially since the rapid urbanization of everyday life over the past two hundred years that created this divide in the first place. How people could ever consider themselves separately from their environment is impossible to answer sensibly--but many of us can think of good reasons of how and why we are separate from "the environment," the non-urban natural world that always remains out there beyond the walls of civilization. Nowhere is this natural space better typified than our natural parks, of which the Appalachian Trail is one. In his lively biography of the 2,100-mile natural corridor, Philip D'Anieri presents twelve characters who helped sculpt the AT into the shape it has taken in our culture today. It may be a downside of the book that the abridged lives that brought the AT into being were not given more pages, or that the cast of characters were so homogenous--nevertheless, the author has succeeded in presenting a thorough and well-researched history of a national conservation project that has captivated the time, attention, and resources of America's white middle-class over the past one hundred years. Like many environmental histories of America, Thoreau's influence plays an indelible role, but here it is only to begin a more nuanced conversation: in the pursuit of "a better home," Thoreau sought both to abandon the city for a time without losing his sense of community and his sense of self. Finding a place that was the best of both worlds turned out to be, in contemporary times, living within a day's drive to a national park, where one can enjoy a day of exertion and return to their cars and their homes. This seems to be the route we have gone in modern times, but it was by no means--much like the AT itself--a straight path. Philip D'Anieri does an excellent job tracing the contours of the numerous figures responsible for conceiving of the AT. Some key figures and their bona fides: Arnold Guyot's scientific discovery that the Appalachian mountains are a unified mountain chain; Horace Kephart's development of the "back to nature" movement in rebellion of turn-of-the-century urbanism; and Benton MacKaye's philosophy of conservation and forestry that dovetailed with Myron Avery's practical skills for charting and blazing the trail itself. These are the "founding fathers" of the AT, and debates over the welcome presence of society within the sacredness of nature were constant throughout these formative years. Then there was the beginning of the environmental movement as we know it today. Earl Shaffer's recognized, and Emma Greenwood's unsung, accomplishment as the trail's first thru-hikers; Gaylord Nelson's political victories in ushering in legislation for the New Conservation movement; Dave Ritchie, Pam Underhill, and Dave Startzell's tireless fighting to achieve recognition of the AT as a national park; and Bill Bryson's wildly successful novel, "A Walk in the Woods," that has skyrocketed the AT's popularity and disgruntled the in-crowd of the AT's most authentic and die-hard admirers. Each of these figures is explored in depth and with scholarly grace that conveys a vivid picture of how this celebrated trail came to be. The author's own experience as a thru-hiker bookends this biography, in which he contributes valuable insights into the ethos that inspired the AT's initial development and the final product we have today. Published just in time for the Appalachian Trail's 100th anniversary, Philip D'Anieri's biography of this national treasure is not to be missed; it is meant to be shared. **My sincere thanks to the good folks at HMH and NetGalley for providing this advance reader's copy.**

  13. 5 out of 5

    Josh Liller

    This is the story of the famous Appalachian Trail through the lens of the people who made it what it is today. The men who mapped the Appalachians, popularized people getting back to the outdoors as a philosophy, and championed and built Vermont's Long Trail thus paving the way (ironic pun intended) for the AT. The man who championed the idea of the AT and his counterpart to actually organized the work. The two people who popularized the idea of thru-hiking. The environmentalist senator who supp This is the story of the famous Appalachian Trail through the lens of the people who made it what it is today. The men who mapped the Appalachians, popularized people getting back to the outdoors as a philosophy, and championed and built Vermont's Long Trail thus paving the way (ironic pun intended) for the AT. The man who championed the idea of the AT and his counterpart to actually organized the work. The two people who popularized the idea of thru-hiking. The environmentalist senator who supported the AT in Congress and made the National Trails system a reality. A trio of National Park Service and Appalachian Trail Conservancy staff members who patched up the NPS-ATC relationship from its rocky start and worked to permanently protect the AT. And last but not least: Bill Bryson, whose runaway bestseller made sure everyone had heard of the Appalachian Trail. The book concludes with the author making some visits to various places on the AT and offering his own musings about the trail and its significance today. Each chapter tells the story of not only what the individual(s) in question did with the AT, but also how they came to be involved in the first place. It's a colorful cast of characters: some a bit eccentric, many outright difficult, all passionate. If you've read A Walk in the Woods: Rediscovering America on the Appalachian Trail or other books about the Appalachian Trail you've probably at least heard of most of the people. Only the more recent individuals (other than Bryson) were new to me, but I certainly learned more about them than I knew before. The 'behind the scenes' story of A Walk In The Woods has probably been told before - probably in some interview with Bryson - but I hadn't heard it before. I knew of Earl Shaffer and Grandma Gatewood, but I didn't know of the tragic shorties behind why they thru-hiked the AT - or that there was some debate over whether they truly thru-hiked the entire trail. I found the writing style enjoyable and was able to read it at a steady pace. There are some photos scattered throughout. The Bibliography will offer some good additional reading if you're interested. Many of the individuals in the book have biographies written about them; at least one published a memoir. If you're well-read on the history of the AT this book probably wont offer much. However, if you're like me and you've only read Bryson and a couple other hiker memoirs I think you'll find this worthwhile.

  14. 5 out of 5

    Roger

    Full disclosure: I'm not a hiker and I have no stakes in the Appalachian Trail. However, I find all of it pretty fascinating. My manager at work is an avid hiker so I think some of it has rubbed off on me these past few years. While I think the overall history of the trail's creation is interesting with just how many people had their hands in it, I don't think this ultimately was the best route to take in telling its story. The Appalachian Trail is broken into 10 chapters (11 if you count the Int Full disclosure: I'm not a hiker and I have no stakes in the Appalachian Trail. However, I find all of it pretty fascinating. My manager at work is an avid hiker so I think some of it has rubbed off on me these past few years. While I think the overall history of the trail's creation is interesting with just how many people had their hands in it, I don't think this ultimately was the best route to take in telling its story. The Appalachian Trail is broken into 10 chapters (11 if you count the Introduction), 9 of them covering people that had significant stakes in making the trail what it is today, whether it be plotting the first maps of the Appalachians, all the way to the trail being a big component in the creation of what we now know as Earth Day. But consider that we're learning about the lives of 12 different people...all in the span of 226 pages, the last 18 of those being the author's own musings. Each chapter ends up having as much depth as a Wikipedia article. Not that there isn't good information, there is, but it just feels lackluster when all is said and done. Even so, the majority of the chapters are very VERY dry. If you want to read any of this, I'd just read chapters 6 (Earl Shaffer and Emma Gatewood), 8 (Dave Ritchie, Pam Underhill, and Dave Startzell), and 9 (Bill Bryson). They're the most interesting and engaging. Or, just skip all that and look them up online. You'll get the same experience. Finally, I think the author let his own personal politics get in the way of a book that really should have stuck to its purpose, telling the story of the Appalachian Trail. Chapter 10 has a couple of paragraph dedicated to how at one section of the trail he saw one black person out of 250 people. "Only one of them, a restaurant busser, looked African American to me, in a country where the African American population is 13 percent." But at the end of his observation, we get this: "Over the course of my travels on the trail, I did see a more diverse group of people than that one day in Shenandoah, and both the Park Service and the AT community have gone to significant lengths to foster a more inclusive outdoors." I'm not saying it's not there in the grand scheme of things, but I don't see how this one instance leaves the author with this all encompassing thought about diversity on the trail. At the end of the day, The Appalachian Trail was very underwhelming and I don't feel like my initial appreciation for the trail has increased from reading this. But who knows, maybe I'm wrong.

  15. 5 out of 5

    Curtis Edmonds

    THE APPALACHIAN TRAIL: A BIOGRAPHY is a series of biographical sketches about the people who were instrumental in the growth of the trail, from the Princeton geologist who first started exploring it, to Bill Bryson, who memorialized it the popular imagination in A WALK IN THE WOODS. Author Philip D'Anieri manages to spin a coherent narrative out of all this, but the thread of the narrative is the journey from romance to bureaucracy. This is a familiar enough story. I used to work at a startup, a THE APPALACHIAN TRAIL: A BIOGRAPHY is a series of biographical sketches about the people who were instrumental in the growth of the trail, from the Princeton geologist who first started exploring it, to Bill Bryson, who memorialized it the popular imagination in A WALK IN THE WOODS. Author Philip D'Anieri manages to spin a coherent narrative out of all this, but the thread of the narrative is the journey from romance to bureaucracy. This is a familiar enough story. I used to work at a startup, and one of the fun things about working at a startup is telling people who come along later, "You have no idea what it was like when I first started." Over time, the romantic aspects (or, in reality, the romantic-in-retrospect aspects) of the project give way to the bureaucratic realities of managing a project that has grown far beyond its original scope. This is exactly what has happened to the Appalachian Trail; it started out as an ideal, and then an idea, and wound up as a tiny part of a larger federal bureaucracy. (And along the way it became something of a pop-culture phenomenon, but that's only part of the story.) D'Anieri's book traces the story of how a vast trackless wilderness became a beloved national institution. But in doing so, the story narrows from grand vistas to squalid little fights over how much development is allowed to back up to the trail. The history of the trail is detailed, and well done, and it's certainly worth your time if you have any interest in the subject whatsoever.

  16. 4 out of 5

    June

    Every new book about hiking and trails will probably be compared to either Cheryl Strayed's Wild, Bill Bryson's A Walk in the Woods, or both. This book focuses on the lives of 12 individuals (including Bryson) who had a connection to the Appalachian Trail, as a way to tell the story of the AT itself. Like many historians, D'Anieri dives deeply into contextual layers, which may not be every reader's cup of tea, but others will adore it. The final chapter is the author's more personal meditation o Every new book about hiking and trails will probably be compared to either Cheryl Strayed's Wild, Bill Bryson's A Walk in the Woods, or both. This book focuses on the lives of 12 individuals (including Bryson) who had a connection to the Appalachian Trail, as a way to tell the story of the AT itself. Like many historians, D'Anieri dives deeply into contextual layers, which may not be every reader's cup of tea, but others will adore it. The final chapter is the author's more personal meditation on the experience of hiking the trail and what broader accessibility might mean. It gets to the heart of the AT mythology: "Conjuring a “wilderness footpath” from Georgia to Maine is in part an exercise in wishful thinking and selective perception. Even in the trail’s earliest days, imagining a pristine alpine realm required not seeing the native history of the Appalachians, or the so-called mountain people eking out an existence deep in the woods, or the logging roads that provided crucial early trail connections. As postwar development pushed deeper into the countryside, threatening to break up the AT forever, the protection effort became more urgent and, by definition, more contrived." Ultimately, this book makes even the most couch-potato-ey reader want to get a pair of hiking boots and experience the AT firsthand, and I suspect that was the true intent all along. Thank you to the publishers and NetGalley for the opportunity to review a temporary digital ARC in exchange for an unbiased review.

  17. 5 out of 5

    Scott Nickels

    NetGalley has given me the opportunity to read “The Appalachian Trail: A Biography” by Philip D’Anieri. I am on the next-to-last chapter and have enjoyed reading about the history of the trail from its beginnings over a century ago. I found the earlier chapters that followed some of the “idea people” that envisioned a trail along the eastern mountain spine of the United States. These people were deeply flawed in their personal life but found themselves whilst walking amongst the hills and dales NetGalley has given me the opportunity to read “The Appalachian Trail: A Biography” by Philip D’Anieri. I am on the next-to-last chapter and have enjoyed reading about the history of the trail from its beginnings over a century ago. I found the earlier chapters that followed some of the “idea people” that envisioned a trail along the eastern mountain spine of the United States. These people were deeply flawed in their personal life but found themselves whilst walking amongst the hills and dales away from settled civilization in the towns and cities. Still, these folks were more interesting than the folks (many of them government bureaucrats) who took over the development of the trail in later years. D’Anieri is an obvious conservationist and environmentalist. He also sees nothing wrong with eminent domain as a vehicle to squelch individual rights and ownership of property for the “greater good.” But he isn’t obnoxious about it. Unlike when I read Bill Bryson’s best seller 20 years ago I wished to understand how the Appalachian Trail came to be and Mr. D’Anieri succeeded. Well done.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Margaret Harris

    Had I known this book was more a political diatribe than a simple story about the Appalachian Trail itself, I would not have bothered to read it. The author focuses on particular individuals who promoted the idea of clearing a woodsy walking trail between Georgia and Maine along the mountain range that bumps through all the Eastern US states. What he failed to include is a full-page (or double-page) map of the trail itself. There are a couple of tiny 2x3-inch maps of sections of the trail throug Had I known this book was more a political diatribe than a simple story about the Appalachian Trail itself, I would not have bothered to read it. The author focuses on particular individuals who promoted the idea of clearing a woodsy walking trail between Georgia and Maine along the mountain range that bumps through all the Eastern US states. What he failed to include is a full-page (or double-page) map of the trail itself. There are a couple of tiny 2x3-inch maps of sections of the trail through some single state, and many small photographs of the activists and bureaucrats he chooses to honor for their lobbying efforts. But the main premise of the book seems more an expression of disdain for the civilization bracketing the trail than for celebration of the preservation of the path itself. Even his personal walking of some sections of the trail is more blah, blah political commentary. Notwithstanding that he transported himself in an automobile via highways to reach the trailheads he chose to personally walk, his dismissal of all things “industrial” (as opposed to “nature”) ruins the story. That the hiking path intermittently passes through villages, farmland, and even along a bridge adjacent to an interstate highway seems “natural” enough to me in the 21st century. I wanted to know about both those parts and the woodsy parts. There is not much plain description of either.

  19. 5 out of 5

    Jennifer Schultz

    Read if you: Want a succinct and revealing look at the creation of the Appalachian Trail, including threats to its existence, its rise in popularity, and the current issues facing the trail. I was particularly taken with the sections on Emma "Grandma" Gatewood and Bill Bryson, as well as the creation of the National Trails System Act (and the controversy surrounding it). Shenandoah National Park (and parts of the AT) are within a short driving distance for our patrons, so I'm looking forward to Read if you: Want a succinct and revealing look at the creation of the Appalachian Trail, including threats to its existence, its rise in popularity, and the current issues facing the trail. I was particularly taken with the sections on Emma "Grandma" Gatewood and Bill Bryson, as well as the creation of the National Trails System Act (and the controversy surrounding it). Shenandoah National Park (and parts of the AT) are within a short driving distance for our patrons, so I'm looking forward to sharing this with patrons. Librarians/booksellers: Although there are quite a few books written by people who have hiked the AT (the author of the most famous one, Bill Bryson, is profiled), this is a unique take on 10 individuals who have had significant impact on the AT. Many thanks to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt and NetGalley for a digital review copy in exchange for an honest review.

  20. 5 out of 5

    Zeb Kantrowitz

    This is a history of the building and support for the AT (Appalachian Trail) as the first national trail. A lot of the book is explained by the people most responsible for conceiving and creating the trail. At many times the trail was just the side of the road of rail tracks, bridges or country roads, that were poorly marked an invisible in places. Conceived at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was supported by volunteers up until the last quarter of the century. Much of the trail was p This is a history of the building and support for the AT (Appalachian Trail) as the first national trail. A lot of the book is explained by the people most responsible for conceiving and creating the trail. At many times the trail was just the side of the road of rail tracks, bridges or country roads, that were poorly marked an invisible in places. Conceived at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was supported by volunteers up until the last quarter of the century. Much of the trail was privately owned and was allowed to be used by the owners at their forbearance. This caused problems when the Federal Government wanted to buy the land from the owners. Especially in the southern portion, instead of being on the upper ridges of the mountains it ran in the lower valleys so that it had poor visibility of the mountains. A good portion of the book is a narrative of the life's work of the people who were most important to getting the trail build and protected.

  21. 4 out of 5

    Terry Swindell

    There was a time in my life when I had easy access to the AT. I always wanted to take some short hikes through various sections, but I had very young children and a job, so it just wasn’t practical. I always wondered how the trail came to be, so I was excited to see this book. This was truly a biography. It starts at the very beginning explaining how the AT was started and about the people who overcame numerous obstacles to build it. Many of these people were at odds with each other because each There was a time in my life when I had easy access to the AT. I always wanted to take some short hikes through various sections, but I had very young children and a job, so it just wasn’t practical. I always wondered how the trail came to be, so I was excited to see this book. This was truly a biography. It starts at the very beginning explaining how the AT was started and about the people who overcame numerous obstacles to build it. Many of these people were at odds with each other because each person had their own vision of the AT. I also learned about and came to appreciate all of the volunteers who make the trail possible. The last part of the book talks about our connected society and the impact, both good and bad, that social media has had on the trail, This book is also l a good resource on how to find material on the trail. All and all, it was a great read.

  22. 4 out of 5

    Brian Miller

    A really comprehensive tale about the Appalachian Trail from its history from the beginning when it was just a grand idea to its current place as a beacon to hikers both long distance and day hikers. The first half although well done was a little more in depth than I needed although the book does bill itself the way it read. The second half was more engaging, especially the part about Bill Bryson. I especially liked the author’s day trips on the highlights of the AT. Great book but be prepared f A really comprehensive tale about the Appalachian Trail from its history from the beginning when it was just a grand idea to its current place as a beacon to hikers both long distance and day hikers. The first half although well done was a little more in depth than I needed although the book does bill itself the way it read. The second half was more engaging, especially the part about Bill Bryson. I especially liked the author’s day trips on the highlights of the AT. Great book but be prepared for a lot of history about the trail which I really enjoyed learning about from the author. Thank you Philip D’anieri and NetGalley for the ARC for my honest review.

  23. 5 out of 5

    Jocelyn

    Written as a biography of the Appalachian Trail, this book delves into the backgrounds of individuals who had a profound affect on the AT and the public's view of it. It is often difficult to tell the history of an object or place in this style and while this book makes a good attempt at it, I wasn't as taken by it as I thought I might be. The chapters meander a lot and don't always blend together well. I would have been interested in a chapter about how Indigenous regarded the mountains and how Written as a biography of the Appalachian Trail, this book delves into the backgrounds of individuals who had a profound affect on the AT and the public's view of it. It is often difficult to tell the history of an object or place in this style and while this book makes a good attempt at it, I wasn't as taken by it as I thought I might be. The chapters meander a lot and don't always blend together well. I would have been interested in a chapter about how Indigenous regarded the mountains and how it factored into their cultures. Overall, a good idea but bad execution. I received a free copy of this book in exchange for my honest review.

  24. 4 out of 5

    Jackie Hoyt

    While an interesting biopic, I feel that this book falls short in a glaring way, and the author even admits it at the start- the persons each chapter details are all white and at least (upper) middle class. There is no mention of indigenous persons beyond a “local guide,” and no mention of persons of color in the slightest. While yes, the optics of thru-hiking the AT (and hiking in general) appear largely white, and largely male, I feel that books should be focusing on the marginalized histories While an interesting biopic, I feel that this book falls short in a glaring way, and the author even admits it at the start- the persons each chapter details are all white and at least (upper) middle class. There is no mention of indigenous persons beyond a “local guide,” and no mention of persons of color in the slightest. While yes, the optics of thru-hiking the AT (and hiking in general) appear largely white, and largely male, I feel that books should be focusing on the marginalized histories. The language and facts were interesting, sure, but does this offer us anything newer that we can’t find online in more condensed form? 🤷🏻‍♀️

  25. 4 out of 5

    Carrie Jones

    I have taught and worked with youth for over 20 years. It has saddened me to witness the decline of connection with nature in today’s children. I am shocked each year when I find only one or 2 of my students have ever been camping or hiking. The Appalachian Trail has fascinated me for quite some time. This book was well written, if a little slow and sometimes choppy. I enjoyed the getting to know the twelve that paved the way for the development of this trail. I’d say to truly enjoy this book, y I have taught and worked with youth for over 20 years. It has saddened me to witness the decline of connection with nature in today’s children. I am shocked each year when I find only one or 2 of my students have ever been camping or hiking. The Appalachian Trail has fascinated me for quite some time. This book was well written, if a little slow and sometimes choppy. I enjoyed the getting to know the twelve that paved the way for the development of this trail. I’d say to truly enjoy this book, you need to have invested interest in the Appalachian Trail. It is a great learning tool for students. **Thanks to NetGalley for the ARC

  26. 5 out of 5

    Cat

    I just read about Grandma Gatewood! Amazing woman! I've always wanted to walk the Appalachian Trail. I remember reading about it as a kid, but have never had the opportunity to do so. So armchair journey for me, at the moment. I enjoyed reading this history of the trail: the characters that brought the trail to life, those who walked it, what they experienced, and how it was accomplished. I still lots of life yet. If Mrs. Gatewood could do it, I may try it sometime myself! Great read; just a joy I just read about Grandma Gatewood! Amazing woman! I've always wanted to walk the Appalachian Trail. I remember reading about it as a kid, but have never had the opportunity to do so. So armchair journey for me, at the moment. I enjoyed reading this history of the trail: the characters that brought the trail to life, those who walked it, what they experienced, and how it was accomplished. I still lots of life yet. If Mrs. Gatewood could do it, I may try it sometime myself! Great read; just a joy. I received a Kindle arc from Netgalley in exchange for a fair review.

  27. 5 out of 5

    Delway Burton

    I have hiked the AT in part over a lifetime. Dreamed of completing it, but at my age that will not happen. I maintained a mile for 5 years. I live 7 miles from it. I know a lot of its history, but this book is different. It is concise and deals with the personalities that made this unique feature possible over its century. Once key aspect is the change in American thinking that lead to its founding and then over a period of many, many years the unique partnership between the federal government a I have hiked the AT in part over a lifetime. Dreamed of completing it, but at my age that will not happen. I maintained a mile for 5 years. I live 7 miles from it. I know a lot of its history, but this book is different. It is concise and deals with the personalities that made this unique feature possible over its century. Once key aspect is the change in American thinking that lead to its founding and then over a period of many, many years the unique partnership between the federal government and private groups. Crossing 14 states and 2200 miles, it is a special American cultural phenomena.

  28. 4 out of 5

    Jud Barry

    Well worth reading if you love the AT. Each chapter focuses on a person (or group of people) who exemplify different qualities that have made The Trail what it is today: MacKaye the visionary, Avery the builder, Gatewood and Shaffer the thru-hikers, Richie/Underhill/Startzell the unsung bureaucrat hero maintainers, Bryson the postmodern toe-in-the-water dilettante influencer. Also good at raising the issues that have shaped debates about the AT from the beginning: Who is it for? Where should it Well worth reading if you love the AT. Each chapter focuses on a person (or group of people) who exemplify different qualities that have made The Trail what it is today: MacKaye the visionary, Avery the builder, Gatewood and Shaffer the thru-hikers, Richie/Underhill/Startzell the unsung bureaucrat hero maintainers, Bryson the postmodern toe-in-the-water dilettante influencer. Also good at raising the issues that have shaped debates about the AT from the beginning: Who is it for? Where should it go? How does it get there? Whose responsibility is it? Why be bear bait?

  29. 5 out of 5

    Rochelle Kaplan

    Very enjoyable .Loved reading the history of the Trail. My husband and I live very close to an AT trailhead in Northeast Pa. We have done many one day hikes along that part of the trail. The commitment of all the people to give us the trail was wonderful to read about. My only disappointment was the chapter on Bill Bryson. I love reading Bill Bryson's books. "A Walk in the Woods" was definitely one of my favorites, that said, D'Anieri could have spent one paragraph talking about the book's impac Very enjoyable .Loved reading the history of the Trail. My husband and I live very close to an AT trailhead in Northeast Pa. We have done many one day hikes along that part of the trail. The commitment of all the people to give us the trail was wonderful to read about. My only disappointment was the chapter on Bill Bryson. I love reading Bill Bryson's books. "A Walk in the Woods" was definitely one of my favorites, that said, D'Anieri could have spent one paragraph talking about the book's impact on the AT's usage instead of a chapter.

  30. 5 out of 5

    Cindy DavisClark

    This book follows the people who developed the Appalachian Trail beginning with the man who mapped the mountains in the 1800's and on through those who developed the trail. Then on to the first man and woman who thru hiked the trail. One chapter tells of my own Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson who initiated Federal legislation to protect the trail . He want on to be a champion for environmental issues and started the first Earth Day celebration. I found some parts of the book a slow read but in This book follows the people who developed the Appalachian Trail beginning with the man who mapped the mountains in the 1800's and on through those who developed the trail. Then on to the first man and woman who thru hiked the trail. One chapter tells of my own Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson who initiated Federal legislation to protect the trail . He want on to be a champion for environmental issues and started the first Earth Day celebration. I found some parts of the book a slow read but in the end it was very fascinating.

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